pISSN: 1598-7566 / eISSN: 2713-3605

동학학보, Vol.56 (2020)
pp.77~116

DOI : 10.46639/kjds.2020.56.3

1894년 동학농민혁명의 공주전투 시기 남접과 북접농민군의 동향

정선원

(원광대학교 대학원 박사과정)

동학농민혁명 시기 공주전투는 일본군·관군 연합군에 맞서 최대의 농민군 세력(남접농민군 즉 전봉준군, 북접농민군 즉 손병희 등 동학교단측 농민군)이 집결하였으며 일부 전·현직 관리들과 유생들도 동학농민군에 동참하여 투쟁한 사건이었다. 이 연구에서는 공주전투 시기에 동학농민군 주력 형성에서 중요한 역할을 담당했던 남접농민군과 북접농민군의 동향을 파악하고자 했다. 이에 대한 연구를 위해 관변측 기록, 『주한일본공사관기록』에 나오는 일본측 기록, 공주·논산 인근의 유생들의 기록을 조사하였다. 이 연구를 통해 공주전투 18일의 기간 동안 중요 전투와 남접농민군과 북접농민군의 동향의 일부를 파악했다. 특히 이인전투가 10월 23일, 11월 8일 두 차례에 걸쳐 있었고 10월 23일 이인전투는 남접농민군이 주도했고, 11월 8일의 이인전투는 북접농민군이 주도했다는 것을 확인하였다. 그리고 동학교단 관련 역사서에 공주전투의 하나로 나오는 ‘옥녀봉전투’의 실체를 파악하고자 하였다. 또한 공주전투 즈음 남접과 북접농민군의 첫 회합시기가 공주전투 직전의 논산이 아니고 공주전투 시기인 효포전투(10월 24일~25일)의 공주전쟁터였다는 사실에 접근하였다.

Trends in the activities of the Peasant Army of Namjob(南接) and Bukjob(北接) during the Battle of Gongju at the 1894 Donghak Peasant Revolution

Seounweon Jeong

The Battle of Gongju(公州) during the Donghak(東學) Peasant Revolution which took place in Gongju, in the Chungcheong province, was a struggle that united the forces of the Donghak Peasant Army on a large scale against the allied forces of the Japanese army and the royal forces of Joseon dynasty. Among the forces of the Peasant Army were the Namjob Peasant Army(南接農民軍), organized by Jeon Bong-Jun(全琫準), and the Bukjob Peasant Army(北接農民軍), led by Son Byeong-Hi(孫秉熙) who was the leader of the Donghak religious community and also some of the actual and former officials of the Joseon Dynasty and philosophers of Confucianism. The purpose of this study is to understand the trends in the activities of the Namjob Peasant Army and the Boukjob Peasant Army which played a decisive role in the process of forming the main forces of the Donghak Peasant Army during the Battle of Gongju. For this purpose, research was carried out in the government archives of the Joseon Dynasty and the archives of the Japanese legation in Korea (『주한일본공사관기록』) and the archives of the Confucianists in Gongju and Nonsan. The important battles and activities of the Namjob Peasant Army and the Bukjob Peasant Army during 18 days of the Battle of Gongju were discovered by the author. In particular, it was proved that the Battle of Ein(利仁) in Gongju took place twice, and that the Battle of Ein on October 23 was fought by the Namjob Peasant Army and the Battle of Ein on November 8 was fought by the Bukjob Peasant Army. It has been confirmed that the Battle of Oknyeobong(玉女峰) in Gongju, which had been presented in the history books of the Donghak religious community, as one of the battles of Gongju, had actually existed. It was also clarified that the first meeting between the Namjob Peasant Army and the Boukjob Peasant Army at the time of the Battle of Gongju did not take place in Nonsan, but it took place on the Hyopo(孝浦) battlefield in Gongju.

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